The umbilicus is perhaps the only scar that all of us want. The umbilicus forms after birth as a result of the placental cord being transected as the infant is “detached” from his/her mother. As the stump of the cord necroses, the scab falls away as the base heals leaving a scar: the umbilicus.
The umbilicus has been described as a depressed scar surrounded by a natural skin fold that measures 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter and lies anatomically within the midline at the level of superior iliac crest.
The most aesthetically pleasing umbilicus is small in size, T or vertical in shape, and possesses a superior hood or shelf.Those characteristics found to be unappealing include a large overall umbilical size, a horizontal or distorted shape, and the presence of umbilical protrusion.In reconstructing the umbilicus, plastic surgeons should strive to attain these attractive characteristics and incorporate a modest size, with a superior shelf or hood and a T or vertical shape.
Based on our study, it is usually 3 cm above the level of the anterior superior iliac spine in a baby and 6 cm above in an adult, although differences in height and weight may affect these measurements.
1. The distance between the xyph0sternum and umbilicus-distance between the umbilicus and the pubic symphysis ratio is approximately 1.6:1.2. Also, the distance between the umbilicus and the anterior superior iliac spine-distance between the right and left anterior superior iliac spines ratio is 0.6:1. This implies that when each of the anterior superior iliac spines is taken as a center, and arcs are drawn with a radius 0.6 times that of the inter-anterior superior iliac spine distance, the point of intersection of these arcs is the location of the umbilicus, taking into consideration the above ratio (1.6:1).
*****After noticing the first referenced article below on MDLinx, I did a search of articles in the Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery first using “neoumbilicoplasty” and then “umbilical reconstruction.” The second gave me a great list of articles (only a few listed below).