In 1889, Binder stated that Stahl's ear has a hereditary tendency; however, this has never been substantiated. There is some evidence that this deformity is caused by an error in the development of the helix and scapha, approximately in the third embryologic month.
Non-surgical Taping & Splinting
There are some who are able to correct this deformity with splinting and taping, as Dr. Dirk Lazarus did for his son (photo from his web site).
Neonatal auricular cartilage lacks elasticity. The moldability of auricular cartilage during the prenatal and neonatal periods is believed to be associated with the increased concentration of maternal estrogen. Estrogen relaxes the cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue of the fetus to pass through the birth canal. Ear molding takes advantage of this transient increase in estrogen. Researchers agree that, ideally, correction should be initiated within the first week of life. Early referral is critical. Maternal estrogen decreases within the first six weeks.
Ear molding relies on early splinting for correction of congenital auricular deformities. Splints or ear molds have been fabricated from dental impression materials including vinyl polysiloxane, guttapercha, triad, or thermoplastic material. Surgical tape has been used to secure the splint, obtain the correct helical and antihelical shape, and to position the auricle closer to the scalp. The splint is worn 24 hours a day, with removal and cleaning during bath time. The parents’ compliance with taping instructions is vital to the success of the technique. The duration of splinting ranges from six to 12 weeks. Treatment is completed when the splint can be removed for several days without relapse. Possible complications include skin irritation and ulceration.
For reconstruction, a full-thickness, wedge-shaped (varying from triangular to trapezoidal), third crus excision is needed. Often small triangular excision (one or more) along the rim are needed to narrow the scapha, to prevent a dog-ear deformity and to get an adequate rotation of the helical rim. Full-thickness excisions are made according to the planned drawings. Auricular cartilage is sutured with 5-0 monofilament nylon, and skin is closed with 6-0 monofilament nylon sutures. Gentle pressure dressings are applied to the ears after the operation. Left photo set from 4th reference article, right photo set from 6th reference article)
- Plastic Surgery Update, Winter 2006--Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
- Correction of deformational auricular anomalies by moulding – results of a fast-track service; Swee Tan, Anna Wright, Anna Hemphill, Kari Ashton and Joan Evans; Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 12-September-2003, Vol 116 No 1181 (molding technique photos from this article)
- Aesthetic Otoplasty--Wedge Excision of a Flattened Helix to Create a Helical Curl; Peter F. Maurice, MD, MS; Karl J. Eisbach, MD; ARCH FACIAL PLAST SURG/VOL 7, MAY/JUNE 2005
- BILATERAL STAHL'S EAR: A RARELY SEEN ANOMALY.; Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery; 115(1):345-346, January 2005; Tatlidede, Soner M.D.; Gonen, Emre M.D.; Bas, Lutfu M.D.
- The third crus of the antihelix and another minor anomaly of the external ear; Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 58: 192, 1976; Fischl, RA
- A Novel Surgical Method of Repair for Stahl's Ear: A Case Report and Review of Current Treatment Modalities; Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery; 103(2):566-569, February 1999; Kaplan, Hilton M. M.B., B.Ch.; Hudson, Don A. F.R.C.S.
- London Centre for Ear Reconstruction--good photos