Trapunto originated in Italy in the early 16th century. It made it's way through France into England. From there it came to the United States in the the late 1700's and remained popular until the Civil War. There was a revival in the early 1900's and again more recently.
Traditional Method was done by layering two pieces of fabric together. The design is completely quilted. The vines and straight line patterns are threaded with a soft yarn or cording. The rounder shapes of the motif are stuffed with small amounts of batting "teased" through the loosened fibers of the back. This was much easier with the homespun fabrics which were more loosely woven than today's fabrics.
Sources for Whole Cloth Patterns:
The Stencil Company
Trapunto by Machine by Hari Walner
Trapunto and Stippling by John Flynn
Trapunto: The Handbook of Stuffed Quilting by Sue H. Rodgers