Gynecomastia is defined as benign, excess breast tissue development in male individuals. Recent studies have reported an overall incidence of 32 - 36 %, and up to 64.6 % in adolescent boys. The incidence of bilateral involvement also varies in the literature from 25 -75 percent of patients. The underlying cause seems to be an increase in the ratio of estrogen to androgen activity.
- The neonatal period: 60-90% of infants have transient gynecomastia due to transplacental transfer of maternal estrogens.
- Puberty: 48-64% of boys at puberty have gynecomastia. Usually peak age of onset is between 13 and 14 years, followed by a decline in late teenage years.
- Late in life: The highest prevalence of gynecomastia is seen among men aged 50-80 years.
- Grade IA--primarily fatty breast tissue. Suction-assisted lipectomy can be used with great success.
- Grade IB--primarily fibrous breast tissue
- Grade IIA--primarily fatty breast tissue. Suction-assisted lipectomy can be used with great success.
- Grade IIB--primarily fibrous breast tissue
Grade IV --severe hypertrophy (more than 500 gm of breast
tissue), grade 2 or 3 ptosis
Gynecomastia--eMedicine article by Ali Fawzi, MD